"Empowerment: The Emperor's New Clothes"
- Provocative explanations of why empowerment change programs usually
don't work, and suggestions of what can be done to help leaders think and act more sensibly about empowerment
by Chris Argyris, Harvard Business Review, March-April 1998
Diagnosing the System for Organizations
- Origins of the Viable System Model (VSM) of organizations, based upon fundamental cybernetic principles of communication and control
by Stafford Beer, Wiley, Chichester, 1985.
The Viable System Model as a Framework for Understanding Organizations"
by Raul Espejo & Antonia Gill, Wiley, Chichester, 1989.
The Self Managing Organization: How Leading Companies Are Transforming
the Work of Teams for Real Impact
- participative design methods used to develop effective democratic decision-making in companies like Lockheed Martin, American Express, Sequa Chemicals, and Syncrude
Canada; with an important and unique conclusion on 'The Role of Management in a Self Managing Organization'
by Ronald Purser & Steven Cabana, 1998;
The Free Press, New York, NY.
"From Control to Commitment in the Workplace"
- Still a classic description and explanation of the key choice in operating philosophy
between the traditional and the new workplace
by Richard Walton,
Harvard Business Review, March-April 1985